Australia’s commitment to climate change – we won’t make it to Paris

Show your stripes Climate change

Are the government realising what we have known all along – we won’t make it to Paris?

Almost a month after the world’s 6th #ShowYourStripesDay, the day made to spread awareness of climate change using the global Warming stripes the government have continued to apportion blame rather than invest in the industry to help them meet the targets they have set.

This was further evident in the Renew Economy podcast Chris Bowen undertook last week where he stuck to the governments line of “ambitious but possible.” However, leaks out of his office and the concerns that upcoming auctions will not produce the renewable investment results in time for the expect August 2025 closure of Eraring have led to industry starting to move away from the spin and into the reality of the 2025/2026 market, even before the release of the August ESOO.

The well-publicised article in the AFR added further faces and voices to those who are not standing behind the government’s naïve reality. Amongst them Kerry Schott, former chairwoman of the ESB, and Paul Broad the former Snowy Hydro CEO, who have been added to the growing chorus of dissenters who are adamant that Australia will miss its 2030 climate targets. This is in addition to the comments by the AEMO chief Daniel Westermann who cited a lack of investment as the reason Australia will fall short.

However, one question still looms large, if we don’t get there will we need to extend the life of existing coal plants, specifically Eraring whose closure in August 2025 will remove 25% of generation from the NSW grid?

It now looks like we have that answer. The industry at the end of last week was awash with rumours that the long-anticipated announcement around Eraring was starting to gain some certainty. According to an article in the Daily Telegraph on Friday, citing “industry sources,” at least half of the stations generation will indeed stay on post the August 2025 shutdown.

These targets moved further into the horizon when Delta run Vales Point announced they would have the ability to remain on until 2033, four years more than they originally anticipated and securing another 1.3GW on the NSW system into the 2030’s.

Whilst this is good politics, no one is getting re-elected with rolling blackouts on their record, just look at SA. What this does to Australia’s position on the Global stage is a different story. With COP28 coming up in November and December it is likely that we will have a target on our backs before we even mention extension of life.

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Government Boosts Firming Power Generation: Blueprint or Cautionary Tale?

Edge2020_Power Generation

In a bold stride towards energy security and sustainability, the Australian Federal Government, led by Chris Bowen, unveiled plans on Thursday to augment its support for an additional 550 megawatts (MW) of firming power generation in New South Wales (NSW). This amplification propels the existing plan of the state to nearly a gigawatt of firming capacity, a robust move geared to maintain grid reliability and security.

The comprehensive scheme, anchored in sustainability, is anticipated to attract nearly AUD 10 billion in investment and stimulate the power generation of an impressive 6 gigawatts (GW) to support the national grid’s dependability.

To date, proposals exceeding 3.3GW have been tendered, these initiatives target the void left by the looming shutdown of fossil fuel generators across the National Electricity Market (NEM). The government’s ambitious plan aims to offset the forecasted power deficits in the CAL28/29 periods following the discontinuation of Eraring and Vales Point power stations, operated by Origin and Delta respectively.

Chris Bowen hailed the announcement as a substantial enhancement to energy security, attributing this positive shift to the deployment of large-scale batteries and other zero-emission technologies. These avant-garde technologies promise to swiftly dispatch cleaner, more affordable renewable energy on-demand, such as during intervals of calm weather and diminished sunlight.

However, the ambitious plan is not devoid of challenges. It remains uncertain whether the proposed measures will adequately address the power shortage anticipated from the phasing out of fossil fuel generators. The firming capacity earmarked for support is predominantly anchored in large-scale battery and pumped hydro storage.

Recent delays to the Snowy 2.0 project have sparked fresh apprehensions about the NEM’s ability to maintain a stable electricity supply and avert a surge in power prices. Furthermore, while storage options such as pumped hydro and batteries seemingly complement renewable sources, uncertainties linger about the reliability of renewable energy during periods of calm weather and low sunshine. These concerns will be crucial in determining whether the shutdown of existing coal generation is postponed or accelerated.

The Federal Government’s bid to enhance firming generation capacity in NSW, although ambitious, is riddled with uncertainties. Striking a fine balance between maintaining grid reliability, mitigating price surges, and ensuring project completions will be a delicate act.

As Australia stands on the precipice of a renewable energy revolution, it begs the question: will this be the blueprint for the future, or will it serve as a cautionary tale? The success or failure of this grand scheme will undeniably cast a long shadow over the future of renewable energy not only in Australia but globally.

Australian Manufacturing: Is it time to bring it home?

Australian Manufacturing - Wind Turbine

The English love their football (soccer) and no more so than Baddiel and Skinner who sang “It’s coming home” for the 1996 Euro’s. But with another wind project either being delayed or scrapped is it really time to consider if the Chief Operating Officer of AGL, Markus Brokhof is right “The manufacturing industry has to come back to Australia.”

The latest announcement from CleanCo last week which stated the company is pulling the pin in their investment in the Karara Wind Farm in the Southern Downs in Queensland, citing delays, not in connections or transmission but in turbine parts and rising costs, only acts to further strengthen Brokhof’s argument. This investment was part of the wider MacIntyre precinct and would or may still be, the largest wind precinct in Australia. However, this could be a blow to Queensland’s target of owning 50% of new renewable generation within the state.

This is just the latest in a string of windfarms to hit delays, the Clarke Creek wind farm has been hit with numerous delays between change in ownership from Goldwind to Andrew Forest’s Squadron energy, through to shutdowns for worker safety as well as project management changes causing equipment to be removed from site. With the offtake from the first stage of the project mostly going to another Government Owned Corporation, Stanwell could this be a further blow to the state’s advanced renewable targets, 80 per cent by 2035, and the existing 50% by 2030.

Another one of Andrew Forests wide array of companies is Windlab, whose own windfarm the Upper Burdekin project has not only lost its inaugural customer Apple, but has had to significantly downsize the output of the site from the proposed 193 Wind turbines to a reduced 136 and is now likely to only have 80 following significant opposition from wildlife conservationists who stated that the project was threatening already endangered species.

To further stoke the flames, AEMO has now come into the forefront of media, stating that not only do we not have enough investment in renewable electricity to compensate for the expected closure dates of coal generation, but the firming technology to support this renewable grid has not been fully funded or addressed, this year’s ESOO will certainly paint a bleak picture for the medium term in Australia. This sentiment is only exacerbated by the Australian former chief scientist and first Victoria State Electricity Commission CEO, Andrew Finkel, who last week quit his role at the SEC stating; not only was the capital investment not in place but investment has dried up and the “country is unlikely to reach its emission reduction targets.” I’m sure not a sentiment which was welcome news for the Andrew’s government whose election campaign was built on the premise the SEC would be both decarbonising the Victorian grid whilst reducing the cost for Victorians.

With the COP 28 due in November and Australia looking like it will miss it’s, late to the party but thanks for coming, 2030 targets, increasing international pressure will be placed upon Australia to ask how we will try and achieve some meaningful reductions? Rik De Buyserie, Engie Australia’s CEO implied to even get close to the 2030 climate targets Australia would need 10,000km of new transmission, 44GW of new renewables and 15GW of firming capacity. With components scarce, increasing costs and logistical issues of port slots to physically ship the parts to Australia, maybe it is time to turn our attention inwards and start upskilling and creating our own industry to de-carbonise ourselves?

NSW South West Renewable Energy Zone

Street lights at night

Last Friday, the NSW government released their draft declaration for the South West Renewable Energy Zone (SW REZ) access scheme to the public. This is one of five REZs which have been identified within NSW as part of the NSW governments Electricity Infrastructure Roadmap. The schemes are overseeing the volume of projects which will be granted to the transmission within these zones and co-ordinate the network and generation investments into the areas.

The SW zone is based towards the Victorian border and the proposed connection point would be in the Dinawan Substation. The access standards are very similar to those already proposed in April for the states Central-West Orana (CWO) region.

With the CWO attracting more than $35billion worth of proposed projects the SW REZ is hoping to attract significant investment for its 2.5GW transfer capacity, noting the location will not allow for offshore wind and as much Hydrogen investment as that seen in the CWO.

The NSW government has stated that the aim of the declaration is that “An access scheme provides an opportunity to control the connection of projects to the REZ. In the case of the South West, the proposed access scheme triggers the application of modifications to the National Electricity Rules (NER) open access arrangements as they apply to the access right network.”

The access granted projects will benefit from significant network upgrades including potential upgrades to the Project Energy Connect (PEC) interconnector which is being developed at the moment and is to run between SA (Robertstown) and NSW (Wagga Wagga), upgrades to the HumeLink which would connect that Wagga Wagga substation with Snowy Hydro and its increasing capacity and further strengthen the investment case for the proposed Victoria-NSW interconnector (VNI West). The latter is currently within the RIT-T (Regulatory Investment Test for Transmission) process.

These proposals will surely give investors’ confidence in providing the required project certification to be granted the access to that zone. They must not only show feasibility and prepare to sign onto the standards set out in this proposition, but must ensure they can manage voltage, frequency especially which there are potential disruptions within the system. However, the rewards of participating in a well-funded, transmission rich environment which has certainty of curtailment risk for the access rights holders, are surely going to outweigh the paper-work process of being accepted and given the over subscription of the CWO, you can imagine a similar uptake in this round.

The consultation for the South West Renewable Energy Zone (SW REZ) access scheme is closing on the 15th May 2023.

AEMO Services shortlisted 4.3GW of renewables in NSW

AEMO Services recently ran a tender process for Long-Term Energy Service Agreements (LTESA’s) and Renewable Energy Zone (REZ) Access Rights to support investment, construction and operation of renewable energy generation and long duration storage infrastructure in NSW.

AEMO Services shortlisted 16 projects totalling 4.3 GW of generation and storage in its first auction. AEMO Services is expected to go to tender for more supply and storage in the future as NSW undergoes the transition from coal fired generation to renewables.

To enable the transition from coal to renewables, investment in NSW is likely to be over $32B to allow renewables to fill the gap as the last 5 coal fired generators in the state retire over the next 10 years.

With 16 projects being selected from the first round, AEMO Services will continue to run 2 auctions per year until the end of 2030 to source 12GW of renewables and 2GW of storage to fill the shortfall.

While the generation and storage mix has not been released, it is likely it will be a mix of solar, wind for the generation and batteries and pump hydro will be selected to meet the eight hour storage solution.

Under the auction scheme the successful projects will essentially be underpinned by a long term energy service agreement to ensure the projects receive a minimum return on investment to allow them to get project finance.

The 16 projects have until the 10th February to submit the financial part of the bids to AEMO Services when they will be assessing each project against a set of criteria including technical capability, delivery timeline, cost and social licence. Unsuccessful projects can update their submissions and submit offers in future rounds. The next auction is likely to be in July 2023.

With companies striving to meet future sustainability targets the supply of projects has been tight. Hopefully following the close of the first auction and another round in 6 months we will start to see projects reaching financial close, construction and finally delivering renewable energy to the grid.

At Edge 2020 keeping our customers informed on the energy market is a top priority for us. As the world shifts towards a more sustainable future, we are committed to playing our part by procuring from renewable energy sources, whilst continuing to secure cost-effective energy solutions for our customers. If your business is interested in wholesale or retail renewable PPAs we’d love to help you. Contact us on: 1800 334 336 or email:

Renewables, battle of the billionaires

Singapore lit up at night

Previously, Edge has discussed the electricity markets’ move away from coal and gas to renewable energy and firming technologies. Last week it was announced that the Australia-Asia PowerLink Project (AAPP) better known as Sun Cable had gone into voluntary administration. AAPP was planned to be the world’s biggest solar and battery storage project.

Sun Cable was backed by some of the largest renewable energy developers in Australia, namely Mike Cannon-Brookes from Grok Ventures and Squadron Energy’s Andrew Forrest.

It appears from the outside the decision to wind up the company was due to a lack of alignment of the companies’ objectives by the shareholders but is there more to the story.

Sun Cable was to provide renewable energy generated in Australia and transport it via a 4,200km underseas cable to Singapore. Powering the project would be a huge solar farm near Elliott in the Northern Territory. The 20GW Elliott solar farm would be firmed with a 42GWh battery.

The first part of the Sun Cable project was planned to start construction next year, resulting in 800MW of renewable energy flowing into Darwin by 2027. Currently Darwin has a maximum demand of around 250MW so either the generation project will need to be resized or the solar farm will need to be constrained until it is able to export. With several solar projects already built in the Northern Territory but not approved for connection, the NT market may become very constrained as a result of the single line transmission between Katherine and Darwin.

Late in 2022, Sun Cable announced it had signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Indonesian government to unlock more than $150B in “green industry” growth in the region. The MoU has a broad plan to build key industries to improve Indonesia’s GDP. These industries include mining, energy, transport, food, agriculture and IT infrastructure, all an interest to mining and IT entrepreneurs.

With Indonesia already approving a sub sea survey permit it is likely the sub sea power cable could reach Indonesian shores and provide cheap renewable electricity to the region to assist in its growth.

Following the announcement of Sun Cable going into administration the federal government remains positive on the future prospect of Sun Cable. Are two billionaires too much for a business like this? Will one of them retain control of the company?

Feedback from Minister Bowen suggests following discussions with senior individuals at SunCable, there are no plans to stop moving forward with the project. Minister Bowen said

“It’s a change of approach and corporate structure, but of course in that regard that is entirely a matter for them”

Following a restructuring process, it looks like AAPP will still go ahead but most likely led by only on billionaire.

Chubb report

Chubb report carbon offset

The long-awaited Chubb report was published on Monday 9th January 2023. Its purpose to “ensure Australian Carbon Credit Units (ACCUs) and the carbon crediting framework maintain a strong and credible reputation supported by participants, purchasers and the broader community.1

The government has agreed (in principle) to enact all the proposed recommendations.

But let’s start at the beginning. The Chubb review came about following claims that the scheme was not robust, being managed badly and not fit for standards, especially on the international stage.

Following the King report in 2020 this view was exacerbated by the Clean Energy Regulator (CER) taking on an even larger role in this opaque market, holding the keys to the design of ACCU methodologies, registration and regulation of those projects, a data source for the “independent” ERAC (the Emissions Reduction Assurance Committee – the independent committee overseeing the ACCU market) and buying ACCUs on behalf of the Australian Government. Some may say it was a keys to the castle type deal.

Therefore, transparency and independence were unsurprisingly the key focus for the Chubb review. Both from the regulatory and data access standpoints, obviously maintaining privacy where required. With upcoming changes in the Safeguard Mechanism expected to come into force in the new financial year and increasing interest in ACCUs from the Hydrogen industry (to ensure certification meets international standards such as CertifHy) the robustness of the scheme must be unimpeachable.

I think the most interesting part of the review is the u-turn from the previous Morrison government’s stance, which mandated in 2021 that their own Climate Active standard would have required members to increase their “carbon neutrality” through a minimum of 20% or 30% ACCUs dependant on size. This reversal, to no such mandate, is showing the business community at least that an international certification is enough for this government. Not the strong climate stance that is being pitched from the floors of Canberra.

As with many of these papers I am finding little accountability and more future safeguarding. Especially around human-induced regen (noting that ends this year), carbon capture and storage and landfill waste gas, with no individual projects reviewed, the current standard of certification cannot be confirmed, yet it is likely to be significantly tightened if the advised transparency is enforced.

Overall, I can’t help feeling this was not more than a necessary boondoggle, yes some interest groups have had some wins, but it was necessary to achieve its end – it is going to undo a significant number of the controversial King review and Morrison Government changes.

Reversal however will come at a price, there will likely be a significant amount of funding put in place to reduce the both “real and perceived,” burden on both the CER and especially the Emissions Reduction Assurance Committee (ERAC). The latter of whom will be dis-banded and renamed the Carbon Abatement Integrity Committee (CAIC), moved out from the CER with full data access restored and with a remit which, if enacted within 6 months, could see them as an Independent Statutory Authority, a level the ERAC currently hold but are handcuffed from enacting upon.

Personally, I think any changes which bring transparency to this market, its accreditations and oversight can only be positive. There is still the government tender for an ACCU exchange to be developed which would further assist this transparency, but I also fear it has stopped short of really making the Carbon Market in Australia un-penetrable.

With Climate Active still supporting accreditations from Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs), Verified Carbon Units (VCUs) amongst others and an increasing number of lesser regulated Carbon Neutral certificated (iRECs etc) being used for Carbon Neutral Claims, I think this review could have used its opportunity to ensure the Australian Carbon Neutrality Certification would be seen as a world leader. Instead, I fear it is trying not to shake an already leaking boat, with pressure for ACCUs likely to increase with Safeguard changes and the HIR methodology ending in 2023, as well as the new “REGO” scheme being touted as “voluntary surrender only” with no regard for the impact to the LGCs market. Another knee jerk could have put too much price pressure on a market which is not only opaque but likely to come under significant demand, and that is before the increased scrutiny once data is widely available.

No, the Chubb review has done its job, it has unwound a lot of the misgivings people had. It should increase transparency, a feat which has been loudly called for in this market since its inception 11 years ago and not ruffled too many feathers in the process. I guess I just hoped for more.

References: 1:

Kate Turner is Edge2020’s senior manager markets, analytics and sustainability. Through a passion that renewable energy solutions are key to any climate change solution, Kate supports our clients to manage their portfolios and any associated risk within traditional markets as well as complex renewable energy portfolios. Kate is hands on in procurement development and implementation for our clients and leads our market regulatory and advisory sustainability services. If your business is interested in wholesale or retail renewable PPAs we’d love to help you. Contact us on: 1800 334 336 or email:

Does another new environmental scheme create more uncertainty?

Australia's renewable energy schemes

In December the Department of Climate Change, Energy, the Environment and Water released two papers. One on Renewable Electricity certification and one on the Guarantee of Origin Scheme.

These are mainly aimed at the hydrogen industry but the first could have a significant impact on the electricity sector if the proposals are implemented as per the position paper.

The Renewable Electricity Certification paper asks for feedback on the need for a new mechanism for electricity to be certified, currently to be used only for voluntary surrender purposes. It proposes it will act alongside LGC creation (Large-scale generation certificates) with the developer able to decide if they produce an LGC or a REGO (Renewable Energy Guarantee of Origin certificate) on any given period, in any given day.

The REGO can be used for all uses, bar RET liability i.e., voluntary surrender.

The main difference of the REGO to the LGC elements being proposed in the paper are:

  • It proposes to allow the use of below-baseline generation to create a REGO.
  • It will also allow STCs systems to create a REGO once the maximum deeming periods from date of installation has been met. If the minimum threshold isn’t met they can aggregate multiple small scale systems to create a certificate.
  • Further it suggests almost a double counting whereby a battery could purchase REGOs to “store” green electricity then re-sell as green electricity with a new REGO.
  • For exporting renewable energy i.e. Sun Cable whereby the REGO can be created even though the electricity is exported overseas, this is not allowed under the RET scheme for LGCs. How we can claim that against a domestic usage is yet to be seen!
  • There is a proposal any vintage can be surrendered at any time for this year’s claim
  • It is also worth noting a REGO would require a time stamp under the proposals – meaning hourly matching could be undertaken. However, a note for is you are in an aggregated system for the REGO the last hour to make the 1MWh REGO would be the one counted.

It is proposed this will allow claims post the sunsetting of the RET in 2030 but does not go as far as to state it will replace the RET – however this must be implied that it is the intention of the scheme.

If this is to go ahead there are a few concerns:

  • Will it crash the price of the LGCs?
    • Could the market be flooded with “equal value” REGO certificates and bar RET liability the LGC market move?
  • Alternatively – What happens to the LGC market if everyone signs up to REGOs – would it mean LGCs could potentially go up in price as people are only creating REGOs and the LGC RET liability can’t be met
  • Will it increase volatility with an arbitrage being available between the two schemes?
  • Does this really level the playing field for Hydrogen in the way they think it will? I am not sure we meet all criteria in the market leading hydrogen certification markets with this proposal
Consultations close 3rd Feb but this is one to watch. It may be being pushed through a side door but it could blow open the LGC market as we near the end of the RET scheme. Have your say here:   


Coal and gas moves to renewables and storage

Renewable generators with battery storage

With Enel X announcing the installation of battery storage systems in shopping centres in Melbourne and on the NSW central coast, this year may see a shift in the energy market as we transition from coal and gas to renewables and storage.

Recently AEMO’s CEO Daniel Westerman said, ‘even after factoring the cost of new transmission lines, wind and solar remain by far the cheapest forms of new power generation’.

Key federal policies have underpinned the need to progress an increase in renewable energy. Growth in renewable energy is dependent on the growth of storage to be fully utilised and the need for greater transmission infrastructure is required to link the projects to the end users.

The announcement of the Net-zero emissions target of 43% of 2005 levels by 2030 have pushed other mechanisms to also ramp up across the country. The key federal mechanism is the Safeguard Mechanism, which targets the emissions reduction for Australia’s largest emitting facilities. In line with the Safeguard mechanism the 82% renewables energy target in the National Electricity Market (NEM) by 2030 is also incentivising renewable generation. As both these drivers will require more renewable energy to be rolled out to offset the thermal generation, more storage will be required to compensate for the intermittency of renewable generation and an increase in transmission lines will be required to connect the renewable energy projects with storage and end users.

AEMO has for many years been looking at a fundamental shift in generation, transmission and energy usage. AEMO is now focusing on firming, Electric vehicles and the regulatory framework to enable these changes to occur.

In recent years we have regularly seen that the NEM has the potential to operate with very high levels of renewables, but the limiting factor still remains that thermal generation provides reliability and system security when the wind is not blowing or the sun is not shining. At the end of December, South Australia produced 104% of its demand with renewable energy and exported the extra electricity to neighbouring regions.

With most states striving for high renewable energy targets, Victoria is hoping to reach 95% renewables by 2035 and Queensland has increased its target to 80% renewables by 2035.

With the recent volatility in the overseas energy markets, in which Australia is a pivotal player in due to the large quantities of coal and gas we export, there is now a greater incentive to shift away from thermal generation due to the volatility and high prices.

AEMO reports show there is currently 21GW of new projects undergoing connection assessment and they expect 5GW of new capacity to be added during FY2023, in addition to the 4GW currently operating.

To assist this influx in renewable generation ARENA granted $176m in December 2022 to fast track 8 new battery projects to bring in 2.0GW/4.2GWh of storage. The plan is to triple the battery storage across the NEM by 2025.

Over the next year we will also see more transmission lines connecting the nation as more renewable energy zones are connected to the load centres under the Rewiring the Nation policy.

The first transmission projects to receive Rewiring the Nation funding were announced following the October 2022 Federal budget. Recently funded projects include the VNI NSW-Victoria interconnect, Marinus Link and various NSW transmission projects connecting the renewable energy zones. This funding will assist in building the transmission lines over the next 10 years.

If your business is interested in wholesale or retail renewable PPAs we’d love to help you. Contact us on: 1800 334 336 or email:

Slow growth in renewable energy

The Clean Energy Council (CEC) recently released to its members their quarterly renewable projects report, which showed only one renewable project, Stubbo solar farm, reached financial close in Q3-2022. The 400MW Stubbo solar farm situated in NSW demonstrates the slowing of the renewable industry. Renewable project growth has slowed by almost 30% compared to Q2 -2022 and over 60% slower than Q3 -2021.

While politicians are talking up the prospects of a renewable energy driven industry to reduce the impact of climate change, the reality reaching the 44GW target outlined by the federal government may be hard to achieve at the current rate of growth. To meet the 44GW target by 2030, a significant number of new wind, solar and storage projects need to come online. If these projects do not happen, the retiring coal generators cannot be replaced and may be forced to remain online.

The CEC says investment in renewable is at an all-time low. Quarterly investment has dropped almost 60% to $418M.

As well as the federal announcements, QLD and VIC have also announced ambitious renewable targets linked to the transition from coal fired generation.

Recently the Federal Minster for Climate Change and Energy estimated Australia must install 22,000 500-watt solar panels every day for eight years, along with 40 seven-megawatt wind turbines every month, backed by at least 10,000 kilometres of additional transmission lines to meet its commitment to reduce emissions by 43 per cent by 2030. This is what is required for us to reach a target of 82% renewables by 2030.

While only one project reached financial close last quarter, three projects started construction during Q3-2022 with an increase of installed capacity of 902MW. As well as another two projects that completed commissioning during Q3-2022.

The Stubbo solar farm project also included a storage device, being the only storage device to reach financial close.

Currently, there are 247 financially committed renewable projects in Australia, with 221 under construction and 169 undergoing commissioning.

The CEC notes that the desire to build new solar, wind, pumped hydro, and transmission lines are meeting opposition from local communities. For example, projects like the Chalumbin wind farm, situated next to World Heritage-listed rainforests in North Queensland are reducing the number of wind turbines they are installing by half due to the concerns from the local community. Another example being part of the Queensland government’s renewable plan which included the construction of the largest pump storage hydro station near Mackay. Mackay locals later found out one of their towns has the potential to be flooded as part of the mega project.

With ambitious renewable targets being spruced by politicians and businesses actively seeking renewable energy to aid in the decarbonisation of their operations, the question of where and when these projects will be delivered needs to be asked. The majority of people support the transition to renewables but obviously not in their backyard.